Use Reduced Adverb Clauses Correctly
Adverb clauses can also appear in a reduced form. In the reduced form, the adverb connector remains, but the subject and be-verb are omitted.
- Although he is rather unwell, the speaker will take part in the seminar.
- When you are ready, you can begin your speech.
These two examples may be used in either the complete or reduced form. In the reduced form, the adverb connectors although and when remain; the subjects he and you as well as the be-verbs is and are are omitted.
If there is no be-verb in the adverb clause, it is still possible to have a reduced form. When there is no be-verb in the adverb clauses, the subject is omitted and the main verb is changed into the -ing form.
- Although he feels rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar. [feeling]
- When you give your speech, you should speak loudly and distinctly. [giving]
In the first example the adverb clause although he feels rather sick does not include a be-verb; to reduce this clause; the subject he is omitted and the main verb feels is changed to feeling. In the second example the adverb clause when you give your speech also does not include a be-verb; to reduce this clause, the subject you is omitted and the main verb give is changed to giving.
The following chart lists the structures for reduced adverb clauses and which adverb clause connector can be used in a reduced form: